Regional anaesthesia provides effective anaesthesia and analgesia in the perioperative setting. Central neuraxial blocks-that is, spinal and epidural blocks-are well established as an alternative or adjunct to general anaesthesia. Peripheral blocks may be used as part of multimodal anaesthesia/analgesia in perioperative practice, reducing the need for opioid analgesics and enhancing early recovery. Furthermore, regional anaesthesia has increased in popularity and may be done with improved ease and safety with the introduction of ultrasound-guided techniques. The effects of local anaesthetics and regional anaesthesia on long-term outcomes such as morbidity, mortality, the quality of recovery beyond the duration of analgesia, and whether it can expedite the resumption of activities of daily living are less clear. It has also been suggested that regional anaesthesia may impact the risk of metastasis after cancer surgery. This article provides an overview of current evidence around quality of recovery, risk for delirium, long-term effects, and possible impact on cancer disease progression associated with the clinical use of local and regional anaesthetic techniques. In summary, there is still a lack of robust data that regional anaesthesia has a clinical impact beyond its well-acknowledged beneficial effects of reducing pain, reduced opioid consumption, and improved quality of early recovery. Further high-quality prospective studies on long-term outcomes are warranted.